| Euphrates in religions | River island in Euphrates | Human activities |
Euphrates in history:
Euphrates is one of the major rivers in southwest Asia, it's spring from Turkey, where it comprises of two branches in minor Asia; to the east Murad So (Murad water), which spring from Wan lake and Ararat mountain in Armenia, and to the west Qara So (black water) which springs from north east Anatllyia. The tow branches flow to the west then meet to the south across southern Toros mountains then to south east to have many branches before passing through the Syrian territories, where Al-Blekh and Al-Khabor Rivers joined. The river enters Syria at Jarables city, then to Raqa and Der Al-Zoor, passing to Al-Bokamal city, afterward enters Iraq at Al-Qaim city, the river expand to form marshes to the middle and south of Iraq where it unites with Tigris to form Shat Al-Arab river along (90) miles to join the Arabian Gulf.
Euphrates length is about 2700 km (1800 miles) and its width is between 200 m to 2000 m at the Estuary.
Iraq is called Mesopotamia because of the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates.
Euphrates in religion:
The religion people called it the grand river or the river, it was the border line between East and West; Assur and Babylon from one side and Africa and Egypt on the other, both of the two states sought to control over the lands between Egypt valley and Euphrates, at Persia era Euphrates was the boundary between east and west. It was also one of the Seleucid Kingdom boundaries and the eastern boundary of Romanian Empire. Babylon and were the greatest cities on its shores Hittite and Carchemish city which witnessed many battles of the most famous of which was the Chaldean Nebuchadnezzar scoured the Victory over the Egyptian Pharaoh 605 B.C.
In many holy books Euphrates was mentioned for its important role in old and modern Mesopotamian people.
Since the dawn of the history, both Tigris and Euphrates banks were, along history, the cradle of agriculture since 12000 years. People living on its banks practiced finishing, create transportation and trading, economic activities continued and thousands of cities and villages were built, some of which are still existing till nowadays. Recently investment has increased with establishment of scores dams and collective farms.
- In Turkey there are 22 dams and 19 hydroelectric power stations within Antalia south east project to reform a huge area of land equal to Belgium.
Atatork dam is considered as and the largest dam near Syria borders, behind which a large lake of 817 km2 the project was set to investment in the beginning of 1990s of the 20 century.
- In Syria there are 5 dams on Euphrates, three of which were built in the middle of 1960s within Euphrates or revolution project that formed large lake of Al-Assad which lies in Al-Raqa province near Al-Thawra city, the dam size 11.6 billion m3 before Al-Raqa city. The other dam is called Al-Baath which lies at Al-Raqa province in Al-Mansora city, the other two dams were established lately 1980s for irrigation, the Syrian government is currently intended to establish another major dam at Al-Tabni area north Der Al-Zoor.
- In Iraq there are 7 dams on Euphrates since 1970s of 20th century, in early 1980s Euphrates was linked to Tigris with canal near Sammara.
River Island in Euphrates:
Euphrates river island are called Hawaej, Plural of Haweeja with different areas, they are formed of the soil carried out by the river though floods. On these islands; natural plants with long leaves and heavy braches such as willow, poplar, licorice..etc.
Grow since plant need water availability wild animals live there due to surroundings of these islands with water, extensive plant covered them and no human reaches. These animals are wolves, Jackal, Hyena as well as Euphrates tigers (wild cat) which either have been extinced or way to extinction.
Local and immigrant bird live and build their nearest on these islands but however they didn't turn to be natural protectorate.
Euphrates in religion:
In Christianity, according to the Holly Bible (14:2) Euphrates is one of Eden paradise river (no geographical site of this paradise is known) . In Islam Prophet Mohammed (God may bless and salute him) has been informed that both Euphrates and Niles are of paradise rivers, In "Creation commerce" in Al-Boukhari book-angels section (prophet was lifted to Almuntaha tree whose end at the 7th sky, it fruits are like diamond nickels and its leaves are like elephant ears where four rivers; two of them are seen and others are hidden Euphrates and Niles are seen…".
In Muslim book Prophet Mohammed said that " Sehan, Gehan, Euphrates and Niles are paradise rivers". Muslim believes as Prophet Mohammed "Euphrates is about to recess of a gold treasure who witness shouldn't take of it." In another Hadeth " 99 of 100 be killed".